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La entrevista motivacional como herramienta para el fomento de cambios en el estilo de vida de personas con enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles sergio. such as motivational interviewing (Gantiva & Flórez, in press; Lizarraga & Ayarra, ; . Entrevista motivacional en consumidores excesivos de alcohol: . Free Online Library: Eficacia de la entrevista motivacional para promover la caracteristicas denominada entrevista motivacional (EM) (Lizarraga & Ayarra.

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Dual Parallel Process in Crisis Situations: Motivational Foundation

Likewise, these empirical studies imply the development of systematic experiences of proactive modification of what has occurred in a CSin order to verify the predictions that can be made regarding treatment, whose characterization is made by way of BMI in CSwhich includes essential procedures of cognitive restructuring such as Socratic dialogue, of decision-making, as motivational interviewing, and of self-control of actions.

The interaction between personal and situational factors previously described generates some dynamics between incertitude, understood as a global condition of the person, and ambiguity, understood as an objective condition of the situation.

Fear as motivator fear as inhibitor: Attributions to modifiable causes, depending on the easiness or difficulty attributed to the control of such causes, generate a higher propensity to adopting an initiative on the management of the situation. Harm control is conceptualized as a course of actions that is initiated when the efficacy of response has a minimum value higher than that of fear, from which a protective motivation becomes more prevalent over defensive motivation.

It is at this moment that an avoidance response e.

Journal of Affective Disorders61 By the same token, it makes more sense to argue that the recurrence of the emotional experience of fear favors the filtering through a signification of harm that leads the person to hopelessness and depression than to propose that the fear stage is followed by the depression stage in the adaptive cycle. This theory proposes cognitive reappraisal as a factor of change of the original appraisal, as a function of the adaptation resulting from coping.

A protection motivation theory of fear appeals and attitude change.

In this search, as stated before, the appraisal of the efficacy of available response alternatives outcome expectation and that of the self-ability to perform lizarraa in a satisfactory way self-efficacy expectation are predominant.


These are aspects of temporal parameter referring to the temporal imminence, duration, and incertitude. What can be done in such a situation?

motivacionwl Wittein her proposal of dual extended parallel process model, argues that response efficacy outcome expectation is the preeminent factor determining that a coping action will assume the course of the control process for objective harm and will not stay only at the level of emotional control action, which is a course of defensive motivation characteristic of the control process of subjective fear. That is, reinforcement expectations refer, in motivational terms, to wanted consequences goals that approximate the final expected outcomebut not to the consummatory outcomes that are expected superordinate goals.

In this sense, the clarity of the solution has to lead to the double effect of increasing the confidence in the possibility of lizarraag harm or pain, and entrevisa individual confidence in the probability of effectively exerting such control.

Conclusions A conceptual model has been developed which allows explaining the events occurring in a normal crisis situation -normal in the sense that it has not adopted the shape of a mental disorder- and which allows orienting the counseling to the person experiencing it with the aim of fostering her control of what occurs and the search for adaptation. In the above example, a student who endures a critical situation of the affective sort e.

American Psychologist50 An attributional theory of achievement motivation and emotion.

These are not, however, the only two dual processes parallelly occurring in a CS ; from other viewpoints, other simultaneous processes coexist as well which, together with the tradition of the concept in the literature, contribute to the justification of the name assigned to the proposed conceptual model.

Four different aspects in the analysis of secondary appraisal need to be differentiated, which have been the subject of study within motivaciobal theories of expectancy-value and social learning: Effects of fear arousing communications.

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This methodological approach is adopted by way of the conceptualization of brief motivational interviewing in crisis situations BMI in CS as an essentially cognitive procedure, which requires the adoption of a formulation system orienting the methodology of assessment and treatment with a foundation in the dynamics of real events occurring to the person suffering a CS ; in such dynamics, a determinant priority of cognitive events over emotional and motor events is assumed.

Attention is often contaminated by the presence of cognitive distortions, biases, and heuristics which notoriously alter the objectivity of representations about the event cf. This is the process that determines the cognitive essence and the importance of feedback loops between appraisal and the emotional pain response see Figure 1which provide the person with the elements of required information that will enable her to adopt some coping strategy following a course of control of pain, control of harm, or both, and to develop future expectations of adaptation.


Crisis intervention, even if brief, is broader and more lasting, encompassing all the time and factors inherent to the crisis Slaikeu,whereas emergency intervention is more restricted in time and covers only some selective aspects of the crisis, such as the consequences of acute biological harm, or the behavioral consequences expressed in acts of aggression to others or self-aggression, as in suicide.

Stress, appraisal and coping. Furthermore, other interventions different from crisis intervention can be the most appropriate in cases where the crisis sets the stage for an anxiety disorder e.

Some examples of simple implementation intentions in a CS include maintaining job activity, praying, carrying out the triad of self-control, requesting help, emphasizing the lesser evil, and so on.

In the theoretical frame of protection motivation Rogers,this secondary appraisal process is called coping appraisal. Lack of clarity regarding the causes often leads the person to make distorted attributions of self-blaming or blaming to others, with the resulting deepening of feelings of sadness and anger, and the alteration of social relationships. As a psychological alteration state, a CS entails important changes in psychological processes which influence the person to act in a relatively erratic manner, by means of trial and error responses that can get her closer or farther away from adaptation to the situation.

American Psychologist54 7 The interactive theory about stress and coping proposed by Lazarus and Folkman bwhich analyzes stress as a process of interaction between external or internal threatening events and a person’s cognitive appraisal regarding the inherent harm to the event and regarding her own ability to deal with the threat.