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ELEKTROLIZA WODY PDF

SO 4 SO 4 Elektroliza wody w roztworze H 2 SO 4 – + O H H O H H H H H H Kouichi Yuasa (Pl: ) H H H O O H H H H O H H O H H O H H O H H O H H. ELEKTROLIZA NaCl. JS. Joanna Setla. Updated 9 May Transcript. Główną zaletą metody przeponowej jest możliwość dostarczania. do zakładu nie soli. Innym sposobem otrzymywania wodorotlenku miedzi jest elektroliza wody z niedużą ilością rozpuszczonego siarczanu miedzi z użyciem miedzianej anody.

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Cutters for mesh and shimstock 3. Clamp and 1″x1″ wood strip 7. Hex key “T” handle wrench to fit capscrew 8. Small adjustable wrench Cut and fit shimstock into ABS tubing 11″ works well. This elektropiza 1″ overlap. For drilling use a strip of wood. Be sure shimstock is flush with at least 1 edge of tube.

Use the flush side as the bottom. Clamp securely and drill two. Perpendicular to each other as best you can. Note this is why 2 Holes are drilled This facilitates assembly Next assemble the electrode into the barrel. Important use SS nut wodt to seat capscrew. Note tube shown top side up. The shimstock is flush with the bottom of tube.

Final assembly for electrodes. Note capscrews each have SS elektrooliza inside barrel to seat to shimstock. The screw on the left will be used for the neg.

The right side capscrew merely seats the shimstock. Install capscrew with SS nut. Tighten and install washer and SS nut outside. This is the positive electrode.

Finished e-cell Shown here upside down. Assemble unit with ABS glue. Wodg prepare SS mesh. Cut to carefully fit inside threaded cap. Use at least 3 pieces. After fitting mesh tightly into cap. Note the sides of the mesh wrap up. Turn each layer to cross the grain of the mesh. Use white “plumbers tape on all threaded fittings. Contact info hotsabi gmail. Kelly This document provides practical information on the construction of different types of electrolysers.

This document is for information purposes only and should not be interpreted as encouragement to actually physically construct any of these devices. The gas produced by electrolysis is very dangerous and should you decide to experiment with it, you do so wholly at your own risk. The author of this document stresses that he is not recommending that you build any of these devices and he disclaims any responsibility whatsoever should you decide to do so against his advice.

What is an Electrolyser? An ‘electrolyser’ is a cell which breaks water down into hydrogen and oxygen wodu by passing an electric current through the elektroilza.

Translation of “Elektroliza” in English

The resulting gas is called ‘hydroxy’ gas, as it is a mixture of hydrogen and oxygen. Hydroxy gas is highly explosive, much more so than hydrogen on its own, and very wlektroliza more dangerous than petrol vapour, burning at least 1, times faster. The slightest spark will set it off and exploding as little as elekgroliza single cupful of hydroxy gas produces a e,ektroliza so loud that it can cause permanent hearing damage.

Consequently, the most important information about electrolysers concerns the safety devices and techniques which must be used with them. The objectives are to keep the amount of hydroxy gas actually present in the system, to an absolute minimum, and to prevent any spark reaching the gas. The question arises then, if these things are so dangerous, elekhroliza do people want to construct them?

The answer is that they are very useful. The output from a simple electrolyser can be mixed in with the air being drawn into the engine of a vehicle and the result is generally; much improved miles per gallon, much reduced pollution emissions, and the automatic removal of carbon deposits inside the engine, promoting longer engine life. The output from elektrkliza advanced electrolyser can replace fuel oil altogether, but such an electrolyser is difficult to build and the exhaust system will rust, and the piston rings may also rust.

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A simple electrolyser could be arranged like this: While the physical arrangement can vary considerably, there are some essential safety features which need to be noted: The electrolyser cell is not connected directly to the battery. Instead, its power comes via a elektrolizq which is operated by the ignition switch. This is important, as forgetting to switch off a directly wired electrolyser when the vehicle reaches its destination, leaves the generation of gas continuing while the vehicle is parked.

Wodorotlenek miedzi(II)

This extra gas builds up and becomes a danger, while the battery is being run down without any benefit being gained. An even better connection for the relay is to wire it across the electrical fuel pump as that powers down automatically if the engine stalls with the ignition on.

The electrical supply to the electrolyser then passes through a resettable circuit-breaker. This is also an important feature because, should any malfunction occur in the electrolyser cell which causes a continuously increasing current to be drawn such as undue overheating of the cellthen the circuit breaker disconnects the link and prevents any serious problem arising.

A light-emitting diode with a current limiting resistor of say, ohms in series with it, can be wired directly across the contacts of the circuit breaker. The Light-Emitting Diode can be mounted on the dashboard. As the contacts are normally closed, they short-circuit the LED and so no light shows.

If the circuit-breaker is tripped, then the LED will light up to show that the circuit-breaker has operated. The current through the LED is so low that the wovy is effectively switched off.

Both the electrolyser and the ‘bubbler’ have tightly fitting ‘pop-off’ caps. This is very important. If the hydroxy gas above the surface of the liquid were to be ignited and the unit were robustly sealed, then the pressure build up inside the unit would be very rapid and it would explode like a grenade. If however, ‘pop-off’ caps are installed, then as the pressure starts to build up, the cap is displaced, maintaining the integrity of the unit, and preventing excessive pressure build-up.

Having said that, it is a major objective to avoid gas ignition in the first place. The wires going to the plates inside the electrolyser are both connected well below the surface of the liquid.

This is to avoid the possibility of a connection working loose with the vibration of the vehicle and causing a spark in the gas-filled region.

The volume above the surface of the liquid is kept as low as possible to minimise the size of an explosion in the unlikely event of one occurring in spite of all of the precautions. Some experimenters like to reduce the volume above the liquid surface by filling it with polystyrene ‘beans’. I am not happy with that arrangement as polystyrene is a leektroliza with major electrostatic properties.

Massive charges build up rapidly on polystyrene, and while the damp conditions inside the electrolyser are not particularly suitable to electrostatic sparks, I feel that the risk of explosion is greater with moving pieces of polystyrene inside the cell. Finally, the hydroxy gas is passed through a ‘bubbler’ before being fed to the engine. A bubbler is just a tall and narrow container of water with the gas being fed into it near the bottom, and forced to rise through the water before continuing it’s journey to woyd engine.

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If, for any reason, the gas in the pipe feeding the engine is ignited, then the gas above the water in the bubbler will be ignited. That will blow the cap off the bubbler, restrict the explosion to a small elektrolizza of gas, and the water column in the bubbler prevents the gas in the electrolyser from being ignited.

People have suggested using flashback arrestors from gas-welding equipment but these are far too slow to work with hydroxy gas where the flame front moves at a thousand metres per second. So the best practice is to use one, or more, bubblers as they are easy to make and install and are very reliable.

Different Types of Electrolyser There are three main types of electrolyser: Each of these will be covered in detail in the remainder of this document. Certain principles apply to each type and will be covered after the three descriptions. These include the necessary wodt area of each electrode, the ‘conditioning’ of the electrodes and dealing with bubbles. This can use any size and shape of container which makes is convenient for mounting in the engine compartment of the vehicle.

Many people opt for a cylindrical container as these are widely available and are easier to mount, possibly as shown here: Finding space in the engine compartment is one of the more difficult tasks with European cars as their designs tend leektroliza pack the engine area tightly to reduce the size of the vehicle to a minimum.

The rate of gas production depends on a number of factors: The liquid used for electrolysis. If distilled water is used, then almost no current will flow through the cell as distilled water has a very high resistance to current flow, and almost no gas will be produced. It is normal practice to add some other substance to the water to increase the rate of gas production.

If salt is added to the water, the rate of electrolysis increases enormously. However, wosy is not a good choice of additive as the salt forms a corrosive mixture and Chlorine gas is produced along with the Hydrogen and Oxygen gasses.

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The same goes for battery acid; it does work but it is a very poor choice which causes practical problems over a period of time. Other additives will create the increase in gas production but have similar undesirable effects. Two additives stand out as being the best choices. Potassium Hydroxide acts as a catalyst in the process of electrolysis in that it promotes the gas production but does not get used up in the process.

The spacing of the electrode plates. The closer together the plates are placed, the greater the rate of gas production.

There is a practical limit to this, as bubbles of gas formed between the plates have to be able to escape and rise to the surface. These plates are typically made from grade stainless steel. The area of the electrode plates and the preparation of the plate surface.