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(1) Juvenile Andean toads (Bufo spinulosus) observed at m were markedly diurnal and more active during sunny days than cloudy days. (2) On a sunny. Reference for: Bufo spinulosus. Source: Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference, database (version 3). Acquired: Notes: Frost, Darrel R. Semiochemicals of Bufo spinulosus, the Andean toad Family: Bufonidae. Subfamily: Bufoninae. Genus: Bufo. Tribe: Author: Wiegmann.

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Finally, we would like to give special thanks to Dr. Pablo Sabat and three anonymous referees for their constructive suggestions to the former version of this manuscript. However, they frequently changed their centers of activity and moved to other sites in m distance after periods of days.

Journal spjnulosus Evolutionary Biology Where it occurs it tends to be abundant. Rhinella abei Rhinella achalensis Rhinella achavali Rhinella amabilis Rhinella amboroensis Rhinella arborescandens Spjnulosus arenarum Rhinella spinulowus Rhinella atacamensis Rhinella humboldti Rhinella bergi Rhinella chavin Rhinella cophotis Rhinella crucifer Rhinella diptycha Rhinella dorbignyi Rhinella fernandezae Rhinella fissipes Rhinella gallardoi Rhinella gnustae Rhinella granulosa Rhinella henseli Rhinella icterica Rhinella inca Rhinella jimi Rhinella justinianoi Rhinella lilyrodriguezae Rhinella nesiotes Rhinella ornata Rhinella poeppigii Rhinella pombali Rhinella pygmaea Rhinella quechua Rhinella rubescens Rhinella rubropunctata Rhinella rumbolli Rhinella spinulosa Rhinella schneideri Rhinella vellardi Rhinella veraguensis.

However, the AE of food was shown to be significantly affected by the environmental temperature, type of diet and by the interaction between temperature and diet Table 1Fig. International Union for Conservation of Nature.

Behavioural thermoregulation of the Andean toad (Bufo spinulosus) at high altitudes.

The HQD presented lower ash content 6. Because it is possible that the assimilation values obtained in our experiment could be influenced by comparing individuals produced by artificial reproduction Chusmiza and Farellones with individuals collected directly from localities Tatio and Chusmizawe performed a test in which we compared assimilation values categorizing by two conditions: Hughes RN ed Diet selection: Views Read Edit View history.


Although there is a lack of systematic studies on the larvae diet of this species, preliminary data from two localities Tatio and Farellones indicates that the larvae consume algae that are similar in total energy and total nitrogen content Benavides, unpublished data.

The unexplained variance was probably due to evaporative cooling. An Annual Review We predict that tadpole feed with spinulsus nutritional diet and growing at high temperature will show higher assimilation in comparison to tadpoles growing both a lower temperature and a nutritional quality diet. Nuestros resultados sugieren que para B. However, assuming that the absorption of ash is constant for all of the diets and the time remains in water was the same; this type of error is acceptable to determine the comparative assimilation efficiency.

Rhinella spinulosa – Wikipedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. In order to satisfy the normality requirements of the data, the assimilation efficiency were transformed using: Our results suggest that the effect of temperature on digestive processes is more relevant than its effect on transit time in the digestive tract. Bufo spinulosus Bjfo has an extended geographic distribution from the Peruvian-Bolivian highlands to the Chilean and Argentinean Andes Vellard In this analysis we detected a marginal interaction among locality, diet and temperature that could suggest that assimilation of both diet and temperature regimes could changes depending of locality considered.

Sspinulosus, the energy that an organism obtain from food is mainly dependent upon its digestion i.

Consequently thermoregulatory behaviour differed according to cloud cover and precipitation. For the statistical analysis of the results, three-way ANOVAs were used with locality, temperature and diet as the predicting factors. Received December 2, ; accepted March 1, Therefore, if the larvae from different studied localities consume equivalent diets, it would be reasonable to assume that their digestive biochemical processes are spinilosus Toloza a. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.

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Mario Rosenmann for his permanent friendship and help. These latter values are comparable to our results for B. Retrieved 6 March However, both experimental diets utilized are similar in composition i. However, the digestibility of the HQD is not affected by temperature. The spirulina-based diet HQD could be considered to be the more artificial of the two used, in its high AE values are comparable to observed values in other species when artificial diets are used i.

Take spinuloshs the above information, we discard locality as a relevant factor in order to explain assimilation differences observed among tadpoles.

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The helio-and bkfo behaviour of the Andean toad permits the maintenance of high core temperature during morning which probably increases the digestion rate and accelerate growth. Assimilation efficiency reflects the capacity of bfo organism to metabolize the nutrients present in ingested food and is an important factor in its energy balance Calow Concerning larval stages Benavides described that Bufo spinulosus tadpoles from different geographic localities, exposed in laboratory to identical photoperiod, temperature and diet conditions, reach to different sizes at metamorphosis.

The differences in size at metamorphosis in Psinulosus spinulosus populations of distinct geographic origin could not be explained by the existence of differences in physiologic digestive capacities. Rhinella spinulosa is a species of toad in the family Bufonidae that is found in the Andean ArgentinaBoliviaChileand Peru. All toads attempted to maintain their diurnal sum of body temperature within a narrow range. The assimilation values for each treatment were calculated as an average of the percent assimilation obtained for each three samples and expressed as percent assimilation efficiency with a standard error.